The Conflict In Darfur

The conflict in Darfur, the west Sudanese province, erupted in 2003 when local Negroid tribes revolted against the central government in Khartoum. As the result of hostilities, during which the pro-government Arab Janjaweed militiahas shown its cruelty, about 300 thousand people were killed and 3 million have become refugees. The situation is complicated by the fact that the neighboring Chadhas been involved into confrontation and its military forces repeatedly step onto the border skirmishes with the Sudanese army units.

Since 2007 the mixed peacekeeping force of the African Union and the United Nations (UNAMID) is being posted in the region. Now it totals about 20 thousand soldiers and policemen. Their task is to restore the stability in Darfur and to protect the civilians.

According to experts, the immediate actions should be taken in Darfur on three fronts:

- Humanitarian efforts should be fully funded and all parties must fully ensure the safe access for all humanitarian assistance for individuals serving at the intergovernmental and non-governmental level.

- The African Union forces should be urgently expanded and strengthenedby the technical and financial support so that they can provide real security throughout Darfur, thereby allowing people to return to their homes and to resume their farming activities. African states pledged to provide the troops should do so promptly. And donors should provide funds necessary for the deployment of these troops. The government and the rebels must ensure full control over its forces and allied militias and ensure that they fully abide the ceasefire and humanitarian law.

- The parties of the conflictshould negotiate for a political agreement, which gives a strong guarantee for sustainable peace. The African Union and the wider international community can and should help.

On August 23, 2004 the multilateral negotiations on resolving the Darfur crisis with representatives of Darfurian rebel groups (the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Movement for Justice and Equality), the Sudanese government and the current Chairman of the African Union, Nigerian President OlusegunObasanjo were launched in the Nigerian capital Abuja.

The meeting was held under the auspices of the African Union with the participation of the Arab League as well as Eritrea, Libya, Uganda, Chad and Mali. But these negotiations did not bring any practical results.

On August 25, 2004 the European Commission has pledged to Sudan the humanitarian aid worth 20 million euros to tackle the crisis in Darfur. About 15 million euros were granted to purchase food and medicine to refugees, the remaining 5 million euros weregranted to the peace keeping organizations operating in the territory of Darfur.

On September 18, 2004 the UN Security Council adopted the resolution on Sudan, which called for the country's authorities to cooperate more actively with the African Union in resolving the conflict.The Sudanese government considers the discussion of the crisis in the UN as an intervention in their internal affairs and as the U.S. attempts to wage aggression against the country. In mid-February 2009 the Sudanese government signed a truce with one of the most radical groups - the Movement forJustice and Equality but in 2010 the hostilities resumed.