The Civil War In Sudan

The civil war in Sudan continues since the time of the proclamation of its independence. Sudan is divided into northern, southern and western parts. But this section is the handiwork of the British colonialists. In the end of the nineteenth century British colonialists have been carrying out in this country a far-reaching policy that could be characterized as «divide and conquer». They separated the north from the south and put into these two parts of the country two completely different systems of government.

The North has been ruled from the Egyptian capital - Cairo. Islam and the Arabic language were introduced there, and many Sudanese young people were studying in Egyptian universities and then received the responsible places in a highly centralized state apparatus with Khartoum as its capital.

The South has been managed from Nairobi in Kenya. Islam and the Arabic language were banned there.This region received the typical colonial system of government. The British officials ran the entire policy in the small autonomous provinces. The West, Darfur region, has been the separate state since the twelfth century and only in 1916 it was finally annexed to the Sudanby the British colonists. Since then, Darfur delivers many people for the central state apparatus in Khartoum.

In the period before independence in 1956 the British colonial authorities tried to prevent the participation of the northern part of Sudan in the anti-colonial movement of Egyptian President Nasser (who came to power in 1953). That is why the elite of the south of Sudan was mobilized against the North that allegedly "oppresses South and does not allow it to develop".Already in 1955, a year before independence, the civil war was unleashed. In 80-90ies, the rebels from the South have been receivingthe massive support from the United States. Except for a brief period of peace in the 1980s, the civil war continued until January 2005. During this war 2 million people were killed. The peace agreement between north and south implied a transition period during which the two parts of the country will work together to form a federation. In 2011, the South would hold a referendum on secession from the North. But in 2003 a new war - in Darfur - began.

The reasons of war are climate change and economic problems

Darfur provides a large number of officials to the central apparatus of the capital - Khartoum. But the region for many years does not receive funds for development. In 2001 a native of Darfur Hussein al-Turabi, the most important ideologue in Khartoum was imprisoned for criticizing the authorities. During the peace talks between North and South the Darfur and its problems stayed without any attention. This fact leads to the formation of two rebel groups among the Darfur elite: the SLM (the Sudanese Liberation Movement) and the JEM (the Justice and Equality Movement). In February and April 2003 they began their first bloody military operations.

But there is another reason for the war in Darfur: the changes in climatic conditions. «According to the UN statistics, rainfall in the region decreased by 40% since early 80s,» - said UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon. «Previously the nomads live in peace with the peasants. But because of the lack of rainfall, the greater the peasants began to defend their land, not allowing the nomads. By 2003 this led to the outbreak of the tragedy». Since the beginning of the war in Darfur in 2003, it killed about 200,000 people and 2.5 million people fled and now live in refugee camps. It may not sounds as a surprise that this has its effect on the local economy as doing business in Sudan is a very dangerous job nowadays.